During a bronchial asthma attack, due to bronchial smooth muscle spasm, mucosal edema, and increased secretions, the formation of the trachea is incompletely blocked. When inhaling, the inspiratory muscles contract, the thorax expands, and the air can enter the alveoli; when exhaling, the trachea collapses. The airway resistance is further increased, and the air in the alveoli cannot be fully discharged, causing the entire lung to gradually expand.
Long-term recurrent attacks will cause:
1. Proliferative hypertrophy of bronchi and bronchioles and synovial muscles, organic stenosis of bronchioles;
2. The bronchial glands are hyperplasia and hypertrophy, secreting a large amount of viscous material, blocking the bronchioles;
3. The cartilage on the bronchiolar wall is destroyed and the normal stent function is lost. When inhaling, the bronchi dilates and gas can still enter the alveoli; but when exhaling, the bronchus is closed and the gas cannot be discharged, causing the gas in the alveoli to accumulate and expand;
4. Long-term gas accumulation, increased alveolar pressure, excessive alveolar expansion, reduced elasticity, and finally rupture, forming emphysema.
1. Quit smoking in time. The nicotine and tar contained in the smoke will be directly attached to the airway and continue to stimulate the airway. Quitting smoking is the most effective way to prevent the development of emphysema. At the same time, avoid inhaling harmful gases and dust. If the work relationship cannot be avoided, take protective measures to protect your lungs. The use of clean energy in family life can also control the process of emphysema to a certain extent.
2. Eat more fruits and vegetables, including meat, fish, eggs, milk, beans, and buckwheat. Talk less when eating, breathe hard and eat slowly. If you are fat, you need to lose weight, and if you are thin, you need to strengthen nutrition and eat less and more meals.
3. Acute respiratory infection is easy to cause acute onset of emphysema. In the remission period of emphysema, a combination of Chinese and Western medicine can be used for conditioning. Pay more attention to weather changes and increase or decrease clothing to prevent colds. Patients with weaker resistance can be vaccinated in advance to strengthen their resistance before the high-incidence period of influenza.
4. Breathing exercise can improve the patient's respiratory function and vital capacity. Common exercise methods include flute breathing, abdominal breathing, and breathing exercises.
Patients who with a mild illness can choose appropriate outdoor exercises. Relaxing and appropriate outdoor exercises can relax the mood, breathe fresh air, and adapt to seasonal changes.
5. In case of respiratory failure, long-term low-flow oxygen inhalation is recommended for more than 15 hours a day, that can alleviate the development of the disease and improve the patient's quality of life.